Water Absorption of Brick As Per IS: 3495 Part-2 | Test Formula

Civil Engicon Team
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Update: April 10, 2024
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Water absorption of brick as per IS:3495 Part-2 provides a standard method to test the percentage of water absorbed by the bricks. This blog deals with the simplified form of standard procedure given in IS:3495 (Part-2) with general requirements, apparatus required, formula, test result, lab test report, the requirements as per IS:1077:1992 and why water absorption of brick is important in last. 

Water Absorption of Brick As Per IS 3495 Part-2 | Water Absorption of First Class Bricks

Water absorption of brick is the determination of percentage of water absorbed by a brick when it is soaked in cold water for 24 hours. The test result may vary from 12% to 20 % for first class brick, second class brick and third class brick.


Water Absorption of Brick As Per IS 3495 Part-2

Procedure for Water Absorption Test on Bricks As Per IS Code

 Procedure for water absorption test on bricks as per IS Code 3495 Part-2 is given below.

Aim of the Test
To determine the water absorption of brick by following test procedure and formula.

Standard Used
The following Indian Standards are used in brick water absorption test.
  • IS: 5454 - 1978 [Method for Sampling of Clay Bricks]
  • IS: 3495 (Part 2) - 1992 [Method of Test of Burnt Clay Building Bricks]
  • IS: 1077 - 1992 [Common Burnt Clay Building Bricks- Specification]

General Requirements for the Test
  • The dimensions of the bricks shall be measured to the nearest 1 mm.
  • All apparatus and testing equipment shall be calibrated at frequent intervals.
  • The number of specimens for the test shall be selected as per IS: 5454 - 1978.

Sampling Table For Water Absorption of Brick

Apparatus Required

The following apparatuses are required in brick water absorption test.
  1. A Sensitive weighing balance capable of weighing within 0.1 % of the total mass of the specimen.
  2. Ventilated Oven [110°C  (± 5°C)].
  3. Water Bath [27°C  (± 2°C)].
  4. Damp Cloths

Water Absorption of Bricks Formula

Water Absorption of Bricks (%) = [(M2-M1)/M1]x100 
(Mis the dry weight of brick and M2 is the wet weight of the brick)

Preconditioning

The first stage is called preconditioning. In this stage, the sample is prepared for testing.
Step-1: Dry all the specimens in the "Ventilated Oven" at a temperature of 110°C  (± 5°C) till it attains substantially constant mass.
Step-2: Cool the specimens at room temperature and obtain its weight individually and record as (M1).

Water Absorption of Brick Test Procedure

The second stage is called test procedure. In this stage, the prepared sample is proceed to get result of water absorption of brick.
Step-3: Immerse completely dried specimens in clean water at a temperature of 27°C  (± 2°C) for 24 hours.
Step-4: After then remove the specimens/sample from the water and wipe out any traces of water with a damp cloth.
Step-5: Weight the specimens individually within 3 minutes from the time of removal form water and record as (M2).

Test Result of Water Absorption

Water absorption of brick as percentage by mass after 24 hours immersion in cold water is given by using the following formula:
Water Absorption of Bricks (%)= [(M2-M1)/M1]x100

Lab Test Report

The average of results obtained from each specimen shall be reported as:
Water Absorption of Brick as per IS:3495 Part-2 = .......%.

Requirements of Water Absorption of Brick Test

As per IS: 1077 - 1992 [Common Burnt Clay Building Bricks- Specification], The brick test accordance with the procedure as per IS: 3495 (Part 2)- 1992, after immersion in cold water for 24 hours, the water absorption of brick shall not be more than 20%  by weight up to class 12.5 and 15% by weight for higher classes.

Why Water Absorption of Bricks is Important?

The water absorption of bricks is an important characteristic that affects their overall quality and durability of the structure made with bricks.  The bricks may be either first class, second class or third class but it's important to know the water absorption characteristic. Since, the water absorption of a brick refers to the amount of water that the brick can absorb when it is submerged in water for a specified time. So, we are going to see a few reasons why water absorption of bricks is important:

Strength and Durability

Bricks that absorb excessive water tend to become weaker and more brittle over time because they contain more voids inside. These bricks are more prone to cracking, spalling, and disintegration due to the freeze-thaw cycle. So, bricks with low water absorption are preferred for construction as they provide greater strength and durability.

Thermal Insulation

Bricks that absorb a lot of water tend to conduct heat faster, reducing their thermal insulation properties. In other side, bricks with low water absorption tend to provide better insulation against heat transfer, making them ideal for building energy-efficient structures.

Aesthetic Appeal

Bricks that absorb excessive water may develop stains, discoloration and efflorescence, which can detract from their aesthetic appeal. In contrast, bricks with low water absorption tend to maintain their color and appearance over time, enhancing the visual appeal of the building.
So, it becomes important to check the water absorption of brick as per standard method before using the bricks in the construction work. Generally we use "First Class Bricks" in the project. Hence, it is also important to check first class brick water absorption as per IS Code Book.

Water Absorption of First Class Bricks

The water absorption of first class brick should be minimum 12% and maximum 20% . If the water absorption is less than 12%, the brick will not stick with mortar properly. So that, It important to check the water absorption of brick before use in the project as per given procedure.


👉FAQs

How Do You Calculate Water Absorption of Brick?

Dry all specimens at 110°C  (± 5°C) and cool at room temperature then measure the weight (M1). Immerse the dried specimens in clean water at a temperature of 27°C  (± 2°C) for 24 hours and wipe out any traces of water with a damp cloth, take the weight (M2). Use the formula Water Absorption of Bricks (%)= [(M2-M1)/M1]x100.


What is the Water Absorption of First Class Brick?

The water absorption of first class brick, after 24 hours submerged in water is generally 12 to 15% of its dry weight (maximum 20%). The water absorption of first class brick is lower than the other classes of bricks.

What is Water Absorption of Bricks Formula?

Water absorption formula for brick (%)= [(M2-M1)/M1]x100, Where M1 is initial dry weight and Mis final weight after 24 hours soaking in water. Water absorption means, the amount of water absorbed by a dry brick.

What is Brick Water Absorption Limit?

Water absorption of brick shall not be more than 20%  by weight up to class 12.5; and water absorption of brick shall not be more than 15% by weight for higher classes (greater than class 12.5).

How to Download Water Absorption Test of Bricks PDF?

To download water absorption test of brick procedure in pdf format, there are so many ways.

What is Water Absorption Test of Brick Lab Report?

Water absorption of brick is the average result obtained from each tested specimen, it shall be reported as: Water Absorption of Brick= ......%.

What is Water Absorption of Bricks As Per IS Code Book?

As per IS: 3495 part-2,  water absorption of brick is the % of water when it is submerged in water for 24 hours to its dry weight. The water absorption of clay bricks or fly ash bricks is in between 12% to 20%. A good bricks having low water absorption result but if the water absorption is less than 12% then it will not produce proper bonds with mortar.

Water Absorption Test on Bricks PDF?

The water absorption test on bricks is given in this post. There are so many options which can be applied to download pdf of this test. You can print this page by choosing a dpf creating software  as printer to make pdf file of the test procedure.
  

Brick Water Absorption Test IS Code?

Brick water absorption IS Code is IS:3495 Part-2. This code book deals with the standard test procedure for water absorption of brick.

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